Tuesday, August 01, 2006

Patricia Hill-Collins

Patricia Hill-Collins (1990-2006). Hill-Collins contributed to education. She focused on gender, race, and social class related to African American women. She came to national attention for her book Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness and the Politics of Empowerment, originally published in 1990. Collins is widely regarded as one of America's leading black feminists. Sociology knowledge, organizational theory, social stratification and work and occupations have been some of her sociological specialties.

bell hooks

bell hooks is internationally known as an African American intellectual and social activist. Hooks focuses on race, class, and gender in education , art, history, sexuality, mass media, feminism from a black female’s perspective. Ain’t I a Woman?: Black Women and Feminism is hooks’s first noted contribution to modern feminist thought.

Yin, Robert K.

Yin, Robert K. (2003) Author of one of the most successful books in case study research, Yin provides students and research investigators with extensive applications of actual case study research, as well as discussions of how case study research can be applied to broad areas of inquiry. Each of the applications (which are excerpts from complete case studies) is... included in his work.
Applications of case study research, second edition. Thousand Oaks, Ca: Sage.
Case study research: design and methods, third edition. Thousand Oaks, Ca: Sage.

Creswell, John W.

Creswell, John W. (2002) Ph.D. is the Clifton Institute Professor and a Professor of Educational Psychology at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (1978-present). He specializes in research methods, and writes, teaches, and conducts research about mixed methods research, qualitative research, and research designs. At Nebraska, he co-directs the Office of Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research (OQMMR), a service/research unit providing methodological support for proposal development and funded projects. In addition, he has been an Adjunct Professor of Family Medicine at the University of Michigan Health System (2001-2005) and serves as a consultant on many family medicine and Department of Veterans Administration large-scale funded projects. Research design: quantitative, qualitative and mixed method approaches, second edition. Thousand Oaks, Ca.: Sage.

Jawamza Kunjufu

Jawamza Kunjufu (2005)….Keeping Black Boys Out Of Special Education. Jawanza is an educational consultant with African American Images. He is constantly on the lecture circuit. He is the author of many books including Black Students—Middle-Class Teacher, State of Emergency.

Orlando Fals Borda

provided a public record of his thinking and some projects which document a theory of practice and set of cases of interventions that have desirable effects, then he adds his own views and those of others to generate a view of the practice of liberation-oriented PAR that is applied to the poor. Best known as leader in AR in adult education and social change work in the south. [Greenwood & Levin, Introduction to Action Research, Social Research for Social Change 1998, Sage Thousand Oaks CA]

Peter Reason

Peter Reason --1990's --Offered a grand view of the enterprise combined with short cases and dialogue among practitioners. [Greenwood, D. J., & Levin, M. (1998). Introduction to action research: Social research for social change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage]

Richard Delgado

Richard Delgado (1995-1999). Professor Delgado is a founding member of the Conference on Critical Race Theory. He has published over one hundred scholarly and legal works and is the editor of a critical race reader. Professor Delgado legal work is focused on civil rights, civil procedure and bioethics. Professor Delgado is one of the premier Chicano writers and contributors in the Critical Theory Movement. His work "The Imperial Scholar" and the Rodrigo Chronicles are significant contributions to the field. Professor Delgado once held the position of the Charles Inglis Thomson Professor of Law and was awarded the Clyde Ferguson Award for Outstanding Professor of Color. [http://www.answers.com/Richard%20Delgado] [http://www.edb.utexas.edu/faculty/scheurich/proj7/crtdelgado.htm]

Martha Menchaca

Martha Menchaca (1991-1997). Dr. Menchaca has provided historical analyses of the racial repression experienced by people of Mexican origin. Dr. Menchaca’s ethnographic works have provided oral histories of Mexican origin people. Dr. Menchaca has contributed in the field through her work on contemporary deficit thinking and makes it a point to write "against culture" and present history from the Mexican people's perspective. Dr. Menchaca's work on marginalization and discrimination in California has received national acclaim for the past several years.

Kimberle Crenshaw

Kimberle Crenshaw (1995). Professor Crenshaw is a founding member of the Critical Race Theory Workshop. Her work mainly focuses on civil rights, black feminist legal theory and race and the law. Professor Crenshaw is an international lecturer on Critical Race Theory and lectures in South Africa, Brazil, France, Germany, and Holland. Professor Crenshaw has over twenty legal and other Critical Race works published and is an editor of a Critical Race Theory reader. She has used her legal expertise and scholarship to serve as an organizer and advocate for issues concerning black people and women around the world.

James Joseph Scheurich

James Joseph Scheurich (1993-1999). Dr. Scheurich’s contributions focused on school reform, organizational change, policy production, knowledge production, white racism and social context issues. Dr. Scheurich is co-editor of the International Journal Qualitative Studies in Education. Currently, Dr. Scheurich serves as the Director of the Executive Leadership Program. His work on racially biased epistemologies is considered quite controversial.

Gloria Ladson-Billings

Gloria Ladson-Billings (1994-1998). Dr. Ladson-Billings was a major contributor to the Dictionary of Multicultural Education. Her knowledge is extensive and she has focused on multicultural education, social studies, critical race theory and education and culturally relevant pedagogy. Dr. Ladson-Billings has received numerous awards for hr work in the field on culture and pedagogy. [http://www.asu.edu/educ/epsl/EPRU/bios/ladson-billings.htm] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gloria_Ladson_Billings]

Derrick A. Bell, Jr.

Derrick A. Bell, Jr. (1992-1998). Professor Bell is a distinguished litigator in the Civil Rights movement. He was also apart of the development of Critical Legal Studies and the final development of Critical Race Theory movement. He taught and wrote the course book Race, Racism and American Law. While at Harvard, Professor Bell took an opposition position to the traditional liberal approach to racism. This fact is central to understanding the eventual development of Critical Legal Studies and the ultimate development of the Critical Race Theory movement. Bell provided some of the earliest theoretical alternatives to the dominant civil rights discourse, particularly in his "Serving Two Masters: Integration Ideals and Client Interests in School" (Krenshaw et al, 1995).

Peter Park

Peter Park (1993) -- followed the work of Paulo Freire and strengthened the role of researcher as facilitator, engaging stakeholders in all stages of the PAR process. [Bentz & Shapiro]

Aboriginal Health Action Group

Aboriginal Health Action Group, 1993: indigenous Aboriginal people (specifically the Koori) begin an action research project to "improve local health services for Aboriginal People [Hughes, I., Goolagong, P., Khavarpour, F. and Russell, C. (1994). Koori Action Research in Community Health, retrieved 5/12/2006 from http://www.scu.edu.au/schools/gem/ar/arr/arow/hgkr.html]

Wilf Carr and Stephen Kemmis

Wilf Carr and Stephen Kemmis, professors of education at the University of North Wales and Deakin University in Australia, developed the term educational action research (Arhar, Holly & Kasten, 2001). They espoused that critical reflection should be done by educators to ascertain whether their curriculum is serving all the children in the classroom--versus privileging some at the expense of others--in order to develop just and democratic forms of education.

Dr. Jawanza Kunjufu

Dr. Jawanza Kunjufu – (1980) is a renowned educator and activist for equal education rights for African Americans. He is internationally recognized for his efforts to develop positive self-images and discipline in African American children. Kunjufu has authored many books including a four volume series – Kunjufu, J. Countering the conspiracy to destroy black boys. Illinois: African American Images 1982.

Andrew Billingsley

Andrew Billingsley- (1980) researched the contemporary forms of community action and reform within the black church.. He focused on the problems black families faced including the history of racism and discrimination in America. His study included a survey of 1000 congregations.

Mario Rodriquez Cobos

Mario Rodriquez Cobos (1938 - ) Pen Name: Silo; Argentinian writer, spiritual leader and founder of the Humanist Movement. Formed in 1969, the Humanist Movement is an international volunteer organization which strives to eradicate war, poverty, violence and discrimination. Its method is to work in groups to promote self-understanding and participate in social projects which empower people to reduce suffering worldwide. Major publications: Humanize the Earth (1989).

Davydd Greenwood and Morten Levin

Davydd Greenwood and Morten Levin 1980's --Placed AR in social research for democratic social change, lead a number of work-life development programs. Researchers payed clear cut expert role, made recommendations, and had them implemented. It was an experimental situation in a natural setting to test if decision was possible or not. [Greenwood, D. J., & Levin, M. (1998). Introduction to action research: Social research for social change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage]

Asa Hillard

Asa Hillard – (1980) He is a founding member of the Study of Classical African Civilization. Dr. Hillard’s social change actions spotlight the material and content of what children are learning in schools.

Na’im Akbar

Na’im Akbar- (1980) a psychologist who devoted his skills of research and practice to increasing peoples understanding of the cultural basis of African-American mental functioning and the development of techniques to address the unique mental health needs of African-Americans.

Rajesh Tandon

Rajesh Tandon, 1983: participatory rapid appraisal in India [Brown, L.D. & Tandon, R. (1983). Ideology and political economy in inquiry: Action and research and participatory research. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 277-294].

John Elliott

John Elliott, British Director of the Ford Teaching Project and founder of Classroom Action Research Network (CARN) in 1976, advanced this theory further by adding morality to the educational research process by postulating that while attempting to add values to practice, teachers develop theories as a result of their teaching [Arhar, Holly & Kasten, 2001].

Joyce Ladner

Sociologist Joyce Ladner (1943- )--BA Sociology; PhD from Washington U in 1968.BA Sociology; PhD from Washington U in 1968.Published first book in 1971, Tomorrow's Tomorrow: The Black Woman, a study of poor black adolescent girls from St. Louis. Senior fellow in the Governmental Studies Program at the Brookings Institution, a Washington, D.C. think tank and research organization. Speaks nationwide about the importance of improving education for public school students. In 1997, she was named Washingtonian of the Year by Washingtonian for her work in education.

Molefi Kete Asante

Molefi Kete Asante - (1970) is the founder of the African American studies department at Temple University. He developed the first program to offer a Ph.D. in African American studies. Dr. Asante developed the theory of "Afrocentricity," which mandates that Africans be viewed as subjects rather than objects and is driven by the question Is it in the best interest of African people?

Lawrence Stenhouse

British scholar Lawrence Stenhouse published An Introduction to Curriculum Research and Development (1975) with the theme of the teacher as a researcher. This was the beginning of a new way of looking at teachers and from that time there has been much activity joining teachers and research. [Arhar, J., Holly, M., & Kasten, W. (2001). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall].

Jurgen Habermas

1970 - 1980 Jurgen Habermas: "Most Influential Thinker in Germany" -- Work Knowledge, Practical Knowledge, Emancipatory Knowledge. [The critical theory of Jurgen Habermas.

Paolo Freire

Paolo Freire, 1974: Brazilian community based participatory research . Credited for adding the word participatory to research. [Freire, P. (1974). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Seabury]

Martin Luther King Jr.

Martin Luther King Jr. (1960's) was a 13 year civil rights leader who stirred the concerns and sparked the conscience of a generation. King embraced a concept of "somebodiness" which symbolized the celebration of human worth and the conquest of subjugation. King hypothesized that non-violent protests would lead to rational and non-destructive social change. King applied the principles of non-violent protest with great success by strategically choosing the method of protest and the places in which protests were carried out in often dramatic stand-offs with segregationist authorities.

Julius Nyerere

Julius Nyerere, 1968: helped spearhead community involvement in Tanzania's independence [Nyerere, J.K. (1968). Socialism and Rural Development in Ujamaa: Essays On Socialism. Dar Es Salaam: Oxford University Press].

Franz Fanon

1952-1963 work of Franz Fanon (1925-1961): Psychiatrist who worked with the Algerian independence movement and through writings and direct action worked towards social change. He is remembered as a leading anti-colonial thinker of the 20th Century whose work has inspired many throughout the world in various movements for self-determination. Famous works include Black Skin, White Masks and The Wretched Earth.
[Poulos, J. (1996, Spring). Frantz Fanon. Postcolonial studies at Emory. http://www.english.emory.edu/Bahri/Fanon.html]

Kenneth Clark

Kenneth Clark - (1940's) a social psychologist who used social sciences to explain the effects of racism and segregation. Clark experimented with dolls to study children's attitudes about race. This research brought to light how racial discrimination dramatically influenced human behavior and interaction and how it was quickly changing the roles of black people.

Kurt Lewin

Kurt Lewin (1890-1947) -- 1940's –Credited for coming up with the term action research in the 1930s. Cornell University and MIT, then Tavistock Institute in London Norway Industrial Democracy Project, and US industrial firms. Did socio-technical experiments which began in Tavistock Institute and in particular their application to practice of social democracy and organizational change. Lewin had the idea to construct social experiment with the aim of achieving a a certain goal. AR is like natural research setting the stage for knowledge production based on solving real life problems. New role for researchers and redefined the criteria for judging the quality of an inquiry process. [Greenwood, D. J., & Levin, M. (1998). Introduction to action research: Social research for social change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage]

Jose Ortega y Gasset

Jose Ortega y Gasset (1883-1955); Spanish philosopher and essayist who believed that a person’s life cannot be separated from their environment. ("Yo soy yo y mi circunstancia" -- "I am myself and my circumstance"). Wrote that life was a combination of “fate and freedom” and thought it was the duty of each individual to take on a “project of life” and to actively engage in making conscious decisions about their circumstances, not just follow custom. Believed that the masses must be led by an intellectual minority in order to prevent chaos. Major publication: The Revolt of the Masses (1930). [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jose_Ortega_y_Gasset] [http://www.historyguide.org/europe/gasset.html]

Antonio Gramsci

Antonio Gramsci (1891-1937) was an Italian writer and political theorists. He followed Marxists ideals. His contributions to action research are numerous. His theory about cultural hegemony, “…a diverse culture can be ruled or dominated by one group or class…[,]” directly related to industrial capitalism discussed by Marx. He believed that intellectuals played an important role in society by acting as “directors” and “organizers.” He was opposition to the philosophy of praxis, putting theoretical knowledge into practice. His contributions to action research include his dialogue for the emancipation of women and helping workers in Turin. Gramsci was considered a leading sociologist in Turin.

John Dewey

John Dewey (1859-1952), worked throughout 1920-50's --determined that democracy is an ongoing collective process of social improvement in which all levels of society have to participate. Would not separate thought from action. He was one of three who formed the pragmatist school and was a prolific writer who worked vigorously until his death at age 92, referring to his work as theory of inquiry.
[John Dewey. (2006). The Internet encyclopedia of philosophy. Retrieved June 2, 2006, from http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/d/dewey.htm]

Cora DuBois

Cora DuBois (1903-1991) was a cultural anthropologist who was the first woman tenured in anthropology at Harvard University. She made significant contributions to culture and personality studies. DuBois used ethnography while studying the Wintu Indians in northern California. Her work contributed to psychiatric training for professional anthropologists.

W.E.B. DuBois

W.E.B. DuBois (1868-1963), -- Known as the "Father of Social Sciences" conducted a research project, while working at the University of Pennsylvania, in Philadelphia's seventh ward slums. DuBois studied African-Americans as a social system. DuBois believed the race problem was one of ignorance. His research led to historical investigation, statistical and anthropological measurement and sociological interpretation. [www.duboislc.org/html/Dubois.html]."The Philadelphia Negro" (1899) -- looked at the symptoms, not the cause of a group of people. Rejected "eugenic and racist grand theorizing" of social research of the time. [Anderson et. al (2004). Being here and being there: Fieldwork encounters and ethnographic discoveries. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences]. DuBois (1868-1963) was a great scholar whose contributions are numerous and far reaching. As a person of African American heritage, he sought to find out the truth about his own people (Hynes, n.d.). In his quest for social justice, understanding and truth, he met great opposition through his lifetime. His great accomplishments to society, and clearly to AR, will be everlasting. As he discovered more about his own people, he sought to help them grow.

John Stuart Mill

John Stuart Mill (1806-1873); English philosopher and political economist who believed that the rights of the individual should not be limited by society except in cases where such freedoms caused harm to others. Famous for being one of the earliest supporters of women’s suffrage. Mill believed that the oppression of women held back society from progress and spoke and wrote extensively on the subject. Major publications: On Liberty (1859), The Subjection of Women (1869).

Max Weber

Max Weber (1864-1920) was a German political economist and sociologist. His sociological work focused on religion. He was an editor in a sociological publication. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism became his most famous work. Weber espoused that capitalism rose after Protestants influenced large groups of people to work in society. He believed that the “Protestant theory” was the action behind the development of capitalism. This is also known as “the Weber thesis.” His was a critic of Karl Marx and believed that “…all human institutions were based on economic foundations…”

Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1848) was a German philosopher who believed in “realities of the world we live in, rather than those situated in a world beyond” (Wicks, 2004). Wicks states that he was one of the first "existentialist[s]" who inspired people in all facets of life. His contributions to AR are the interpretations and reflections outlined in numerous published works he produced throughout his short life. He reflected on culture as well as the psychology of people. His work was thoroughly studies in Germany. Nietzsche had a powerful philosophy on power that was supported by the Nazis. His observations and works influenced people to change. Although AR is about changing to make a (positive) difference, overlooking this type of influence would be remiss.

Karl Marx

Karl Marx (1818-1883) was a philosopher, social scientist, historian and revolutionary. He has been called one of “…the most influential socialist thinker[s] to emerge in the 19th century” (Kreis, 2006). Marx was not recognized for his contributions until after he died. His social, economic and political contributions continue to influence our society and education today. Marx organized people to effect change in France through his observations, research and action. One of his influential works was Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts (1844). Kreis stated that “Marx outlined a humanist conception of communism, influenced by the philosophy of Ludwig Feuerbach and based on a contrast between the alienated nature of labor under capitalism and a communist society in which human beings freely developed their nature.

Marx was a revolutionary communist who inspired many socialist governments in the twentieth century, was born in Trier, Prussia, now Germany. As a student of philosophy, Marx engaged early on in radical student activities as a newspaper editor espousing derisive social ideas. Earning his doctorate degree at the age of 23, his radicalism resulted in making him unfit for a career in academics. He left Berlin in 1843, whereupon he went to Paris to establish a radical journal. In 1845 he was banished from Paris and went to Brussels with his life-long friend Friedrich Engels, with whom he co-authored The Communist Manifesto in 1848 at the request of the Communist League, calling for the workers of the world to unite. Marx’s view was that history was filled with class struggles between owners and workers—or capitalists and the proletariat. He anticipated that wealth would become increasingly owned by a few capitalists and the dissatisfied masses would spark a bloody revolution, leading to a classless society. In 1848 Marx was banished from Brussels and moved to London and continued to write. During this time he authored Das Kapital in 1867. Marx never held a paying job in London, but was always financially supported by Engles. In 1883 he died in London in a somewhat indigent atmosphere. His work inspired Lenin and Mao Tse-tung and helped to impose communism throughout the world in more than twenty countries (Henderson, 2006).

Ludwig Feurbach

Ludwig Feurbach (1804-1872) was a philosopher interested in the theory and practice of complex relationships in society. His contributions to AR are through his published works. They are: The Essence of Christianity, 1841; The Philosophy of the Future, 1843; Lectures on the Essence of Religion 1851. [http://www.marxists.org/archive/ilyenkov/works/essays/essay6.htm and http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1886/ludwig-feuerbach/ch03.htm].

Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), German metaphysician, reversed Des Cartes' preference for quantitative research in his Critique of Pure Reason, written in 1781, professing that Cartesian objectivism was inadequate for understanding the human experience—that human knowledge is based on understanding—and an intellectual state cannot be derived from mere observance of experience in quantifiable manners. This moved thinking in the direction toward what later became known in the early 1900s as qualitative research, the field where action research is found. (The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05).

Johann Wolfgang Goethe

Johann Wolfgang Goethe (1749-1832) was active in research of folk tradition. He is credited with creating some of the norms for Christmas. He also believed that land shaped people and their customs. His contributions to AR include his influences to social behaviors through rituals and cultures.

David Hume

David Hume (1711-1776) was a Scottish philosopher who believed that people who were benevolent influenced others, therefore it promoted positive changes in behavior in society. Morris states, "Daily observation" confirms that we recognize and approve of the utility of acts of benevolence and justice. His contributions to AR are his social theories to benefit society. Although his work would not constitute a true definition to action research, he is a worthy mention. His major works included: A Treatise of Human Nature (1739-1740), An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (1748), Concerning the Principles of Morals (1751), and Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion (1779).[Morris, William Edward, "David Hume", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2001 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.)

Saturday, July 29, 2006

John Locke (1632-1704)

John Locke was a British philosopher who collected information on various topics including, but not limited to, trade, economics, and education. He did not believe in authoritarian rule. Locke believed that each person should search for truth without relying solely on others. Locke's contributions to action research extends from his interests to facilitate individual and social change with respect to material and spiritual welfare. His major works include: As Essay Covering Human Understanding; Two Treatises of Government; Letters Concerning Toleration; The Reasonableness of Christianity; and Some Thoughts Concerning Education.